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The Incremental Commitment Spiral Model  (ICSM) builds on the strengths of current process models: early verification and validation concepts in the V-model, concurrency concepts in the Concurrent Engineering model, lighter-weight concepts in the Agile and Lean models, risk-driven concepts in the spiral model, the phases and anchor points in the RUP and recent extensions of the spiral model to address SoS acquisition.In comparison to the software-intensive RUP, the ICSM also addresses hardware and human factors integration. It extends the RUP phases to cover the full system life cycle: an Exploration phase precedes the RUP Inception phase, which is refocused on valuation and investment analysis. The RUP Elaboration phase is refocused on Foundations, to which it adds feasibility evidence; the RUP Construction and Transition phases are combined into Development; and an additional Operations phase combines operations, production, maintenance, and phase-out.