Sunita Chulani, "Modeling Software Defect Introduction," Proceedings, California Software Symposium '97 (pdf)
In software estimation, it is important to recognize the strong relationships between Cost, Schedule and Quality. They form three sides of the same triangle. Beyond a certain point (the “Quality is Free” point), it is difficult to increase the quality without increasing either the cost or schedule or both for the software under development. Similarly, development schedule cannot be drastically compressed without hampering the quality of the software product and/or increasing the cost of development. Software estimation models can play an important role in facilitating the balance of the three factors.
Alexander Egyed, Barry Boehm, "Analysis of Software Requirements Negotiation Behavior Patterns," Proceedings, INCOSE '97 (pdf)
Roughly 35 three-person teams played the roles of user, customer, and developer in negotiating the requirements of a library information system. Each team was provided with a suggested set of stakeholder goals and implementation options, but were encouraged to exercise creativity in expanding the stakeholder goals and in creating options for negotiating an eventually satisfactory set of requirements.
The teams consisted of students in a first-year graduate course in software engineering at USC. They were provided with training in the Theory W (win-win) approach to requirements determination and the associated USC WinWin groupware support system. They were required to complete the assignment in two weeks.
Data was collected on the negotiation process and results, with 23 projects providing sufficiently complete and comparable data for analysis. A number of hypotheses were formulated about the results, e.g. that the uniform set of initial conditions would lead to uniform results. This paper summarizes the data analysis, which shows that expectations of uniform group behavior were generally not realized.
Bradford Clark, "The Effects of Process Maturity on Software Development Effort," Ph.D. Dissertation (pdf)
A software product is often behind schedule, over budget, non-conforming to requirements and of poor quality. Controlling and improving the processes used to develop software has been proposed as a primary remedy to these problems. The Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University has published the Software Capability Maturity Model (SW-CMM) for use as a set of criteria to eveluate an organization's Process Maturity. The model is also used as a roadmap to improve a software development process's maturity. The premise of the SW-CMM is that mature development processes deliver products on time, within budget, within requirements, and of high quality.
This research examis the effects of Software Process Maturity, using the SW-CMM, on software development effort. Effort is the primary determinant of software development cost and schedule. The technical challenge in this research is determining how much change in effort is due solely to changing Process Maturity when this change generally occurs concurrently with changes to other factors that also influence software development effort.
The six mathematical models used in this research support the following concludion: For the one hundred twelve projects in this sample, Software Process Maturity was a significant factor (95% confidence level) affecting software development effort. After normalizing fo the effects of other effort influences, a one-increment change in the rating of Process Maturity resulted in a 15% to 21% reduction in effort. The modeling approach used in this analysis can be used in other areas of Software Engineering as well.
Cristina Gacek, "Detecting Architectural Mismatches During Systems Composition," Qualifying Report for partial fulfillment of Computer Science Department requirements (pdf)
The USC Architect's Automated Assistant (AAA) tool and method provides a capability for early detection of architectural style mismatches among four architectural styles: Main-Subroutine, Pipe-and-Filter, Event-Based, and Distributed Processes. For these four styles, mismatch detection is based on a set of seven conceptual features distinguishing each style, and a set of eight types of bridging connectors characterizing compositions among the four styles.
The work proposed here is to formalize some additional architectural styles--namely Blackboard, Closed-Loop Feedback Control, Logic Programming, Real-Time, Rule-Based, and Transactional Database styles--and to extend the mismatch analysis capability to cover interactions of the original four styles with the new ones. The analysis results will test various hypotheses, such as the sufficiency of the original seven conceptual features and eight bridging connector types to characterize the broader set of styles and their composition.
We will also try to provide a more formal basis for detecting and classifying architectural conceptual features, thus providing a formal framework for extending the models. The application of the broadened mismatch analysis capability to a relevant problem will also be included in the future.
Sunita Chulani, "Results of Delphi for the Defect Introduction Model (Sub-Model of the Cost/Quality Model Extension to COCOMO II)" (pdf)
In software estimation, it is important to recognize the strong correlation between Cost, Schedule and Quality. They form three sides of the same triangle. Beyond a certain point (the "Quality is Free" point), it is difficult to increase the quality without increasing either the cost or schedule or both for the software under development. Similarly, development schedule cannot be drastically compressed without hampering the quality of the software product and/or increasing the cost of development. Software estimation models can play an important role in facilitating the balance of the three factors.
This paper presents an initial version of the Defect Introduction sub-model of the empirical quality modeling extension to the existing COCOMO II software cost estimation model. The Quality Model is an estimation model that can be used for predicting number of residual defects/KSLOC (thousands of Source Lines of Code) or defects/FP (Function Point) in a software product. It applies in the early activities such as analysis and design as well as in the later stages for refining the estimate when more information is available. It enables 'what-if' analyses that demonstrate the impact of various defect removal techniques and the effects of personnel, project, product and platform characteristics on software quality. It also provides insights on determining ship time, assessment of quality investment payoffs and understanding of quality strategy interactions.
The model has two sub-models, namely the Defect Introduction Model and the Defect Removal Model. This paper focuses on the Initial version of the Defect Introduction Model which is the result of a two-round Delphi analysis. It discusses in depth the Defect Introduction rate sensitivities of the various COCOMO II parameters and gives a detailed explanation of the rationale behind the suggested numeric ratings associated with each of the parameters.
Barry Boehm, Alexander Egyed, Julie Kwan, Ray Madachy, "Developing Multimedia Applications with the WinWin Spiral Model," Proceedings, ESEC/FSE 97, Springer Verlag, 1997, pp. 20-39 (pdf)
Fifteen teams recently used the WinWin Spiral Model to perform the system engineering and architecting of a set of multimedia applications for the USC Library Information Systems. Six of the applications were then developed into an Initial Operational Capability. The teams consisted of USC graduate students in computer science. The applications involved extensions of USC's UNIX-based, text-oriented, client-server Library Information System to provide access to various multimedia archives (films, videos, photos, maps, manuscripts, etc.).
Each of the teams produced results which were on schedule and (with one exception) satisfactory to their various Library clients. This paper summarizes the WinWin Spiral Model approach taken by the teams, the experiences of the teams in dealing with project challenges, and the major lessons learned in applying the Model. Overall, the WinWin Spiral Model provided sufficient flexibility and discipline to produce successful results, but several improvements were identified to increase its cost-effectiveness and range of applicability.
Ellis Horowitz, "WinWin Reference Manual--A System for Collaboration and Negotiation," this is the WinWin Reference Manual as of June 1997 (updated 1999) (pdf)
WinWin is a computer program that aids in the capture, negotiation, and coordination of requirements for a arge system. It assumes that a group of people, called stakeholders, have signed on with the express purpose of discussing and refining the requirements of their proposed system. The system can be of any type.
Cristina Gacek, "Detecting Architectural Mismatches During Systems Composition--An Extension to the AAA Model" (pdf)
The USC Architect's Automated Assistant (AAA) tool and method provides a capability for early detection of architectural style mismatches among four architectural styles: Main-Subroutine, Pipe-and-Filter, Event-Based, and Distributed Processes.
The work proposed here is to formalize some additional architectural styles--namely Blackboard, Closed-Loop Feedback Control, Logic Programming, Real-Time, Rule-Based, and Transactional Database styles--and to extend the mismatch analysis capability to cover interactions of the original four styles with the new ones. The application of the mismatch analysis capability to a relevant problem will also be included in the future.
Ahmed Abd-Allah, "Extending Reliability Block Diagrams to Software Architectures" (pdf)
Reliability block diagrams focus on components and connectors as do software architectures. However, some architectural styles possess characteristics which make traditional reliability block diagrams unusable as an analysis technique. In order to use the diagrams, they must be extended to reflect common architectural choices such as concurrency, distribution, dynamism, and implicit connectors.
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