Constructive Cost Model for
Software Intensive Systems-of-Systems:
COSOSIMO Cost Model
Lead Personnel: Jo
The Constructive System-of-Systems (SoS) Integration Cost Model
(COSOSIMO) is being developed by USC's Center for Systems and Software
Engineering (CSSE) to model and calculate the SoS architecture definition
and integration effort for software-intensive, net-centric SoSs.
COSOSIMO is designed to estimate SoS Engineering (SoSE) effort
typically performed by a Lead System Integrator (LSI), prime contractor,
government team, or some combination of these organizations. It
estimates the effort associated with the activities to define the
SoS architecture, identify sources to either supply or develop the
required SoS component systems, and eventually integrate and test
these high level component systems. For the purposes of this cost
model, an SoS is defined as an evolutionary net-centric architecture
that allows geographically distributed component systems to exchange
information and perform tasks within the framework that they are
not capable of performing on their own outside of the framework.
The component systems may operate within the SoS framework as well
as outside of the framework, and may dynamically come and go as
needed or available. In addition, the component systems are typically
independently developed and managed by organizations/vendors other
than the SoS sponsors or the LSI.
Results of recent COSOSIMO workshops have resulted
in the definition of three COSOSIMO sub-models: a planning/requirements
management/architecture (PRA) sub-model, a source selection and
supplier oversight (SS) sub-model, and an SoS integration and testing
Currently, the COSOSIMO submodels and parameters have been defined.
At this point, COSOSIMO may be used as a conceptual model to help
estimators understand the factors influencing effort and to accordingly
adjust estimates generated by other means (e.g., COSYSMO, analogy-based,
activity-based, level of effort, rough order of magnitude).
- Boehm, B. and Lane J. (2006) "21st
Century Processes for Acquiring 21st Century Software-Intensive
Systems of Systems." CrossTalk: Vol. 19, No. 5, pp.4-9.
- Carlock, P., and J. Lane (2006); “System
of Systems Enterprise Systems Engineering, the Enterprise Architecture
Management Framework, and System of Systems Cost Estimation”,
21st International Forum on COCOMO and Systems/Software Cost Modeling,
- Lane, J. (2006);COSOSIMO
Parameter Definitions, USC-CSE-2006-606.
- Lane, J. and B. Boehm (2006); “Synthesis
of Existing Cost Models to Meet System of Systems Needs”,
Proceedings of Conference on System Engineering Research, USC-CSE-2006-611.
- Lane, J. and Boehm, B. (2007); "System of Systems Cost
Estimation: Analysis of Lead System Integrator Engineering Activities",
Information Resources Management Journal, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp.
- Lane, J. and B. Boehm (2007); "Modern Tools to Support
DoD Software Intensive System of Systems Cost Estimation",
Data and Analysis Center for Software (DACS) Technical Report
- Lane, J. and B. Boehm (2007); "System of Systems Lead System
Integrators: Where do They Spend Their Time and What Makes Them
More or Less Efficient?", Systems Engineering Journal, (submitted
- Lane, J. and R. Valerdi (2007); "Synthesizing SoS Concepts
for Use in Cost Modeling", Systems Engineering Journal, Vol.
10, No. 4 (to appear).
- Madachy, R., B. Boehm, and J. Lane (2007); “Assessing
Hybrid Incremental Processes for SISOS Development”,
Software Process Improvement and Practice (to appear).
- Wang, G., R. Valerdi, J. Lane, and B. Boehm (2006); “Towards
a Work Breakdown Structure for Net Centric System of Systems Engineering
and Management”, International Conference on Systems Engineering
The next steps, model calibration and validation, require the support
of our industry affiliates. The key factor to validating and calibrating
the COSOSIMO model is good data from actual SoSE programs. To that
end, we are asking for the help of the systems and software engineering
industry in collecting data. If you (or the organizations you work
for) have the ability to supply system of systems definition and
integration data, we would like to hear from you. The benefit to
you for participating in data collection will be the availability
of a more accurate predictive model for estimating your future SoS
work. For further information or to discuss participation in the
COSOSIMO data collection program, please contact Jo