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THE COCOMO® BOOK explains the theory behind the model, while keeping a focus on the practical informational needs of the professional software cost estimator. This new book should be viewed as an updated supplement for Barry Boehm's earlier text detailing the theory and application of COCOMO® 81. For the software professional, it serves quite well as a stand-alone resource, providing all the information needed to effectively apply the USC COCOMO® II tool. This book also contains information about the different parts of the COCOMO® Suite. 


The Center continues to do research on COCOMO® (Constructive Cost Model), a tool which allows one to estimate the cost, effort, and schedule associated with a prospective software development project. First published in 1981, the original COCOMO® model has recently been superseded by COCOMO® II, which reflects the improvements in professional software development practice that have been adopted since the 1970s, positioning COCOMO® for continued relevancy into the 21st century. 


The Center continues to research Agile COCOMO® II, a cost estimation tool that is based on COCOMO® II. It uses analogy-based estimation to generate accurate results while being very simple to use and easy to learn. 

The Center is actively conducting research in the area of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software integration cost modeling. Our new cost model COCOTS (Constructive COTS), focuses on estimating the cost, effort, and schedule associated with using COTS components in a software development project. Though still experimental, COCOTS is a model complementary to COCOMO® II, capturing costs that traditionally have been outside the scope of COCOMO®. Ideally, once fully formulated and validated, COCOTS will be used in concert with COCOMO® to provide a complete software development cost estimation solution. 


In software estimation, it is important to recognize the strong relationships between Cost, Schedule and Quality. They form three sides of the same triangle. Beyond a certain point (the "Quality is Free" point), it is difficult to increase software quality without increasing either the cost or schedule or both for the software under development. Similarly, development schedule cannot be drastically compressed without hampering the quality of the software product and/or increasing the cost of development. Software estimation models can play an important role in facilitating the balance of these three factors. COQUALMO (Constructive Quality Model) is one such estimation model.


CORADMO (Construction Rapid Application Development Model) is an extension of the COCOMO® II model, which focuses on the cost of developing software using rapid application development techniques.  RAD is taken to mean an application of any of a number of techniques or strategies to reduce software development cycle time.  The intent of the CORADMO is to calculate/predict the schedule (Months, M), personnel (Persons, P), and adjusted effort (Person-Months, PM) based on the distribution of effort and schedule to the various stages, and impacts of the selected schedule driver ratings on the M, P, and PM of each stage.


Constructive Productivity Improvement Model
Focuses on predicting the most-cost-effective allocation of investment resources in new technologies, intending to improve productivity.


Constructive Phased Schedule & Effort Model
Focuses on the cost of developing software as distributed over the development activity stage.


The purpose of the COSYSMO (Constructive Systems Engineering Cost Model)  model is to estimate the System Engineering  (SE) tasks in  software-intensive projects. The CSSE  Research Group Selected  ANSI/EI632 SE standard as a guide for identifying the tasks addressed in COSYSMO. The focus of the initial increment of the model is on the costs of SE in Information Processing (IP) subsystems, hence the naming of COSYSMO-IP. Several CSSE Affiliates and members of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) have been involved in the definition of the drivers and strategic direction of the model.


COPLIMO (Constructive Product Line Investment Model) consists of two components: a product line development cost model and an annualized post-development life cycle extension. It focuses on modeling the portions of the software that involve product-specific newly-built software, fully reused black-box product line components, and product line components that are reused with adaptation.


The center continues to do research on iDAVE (Information Dependability Attribute Value Estimation model). iDAVE’s overall structure includes Cost-Estimating Relationships (CERs) from COCOMO® II. CERs let users express time-phased information-processing capabilities in terms of equivalent software size. They also let users estimate time-phased software life-cycle investment costs in terms of software size and the project’s product, platform, people, and project attributes. Eventually, iDAVE might also include CERs for COTS-related software costs, inventory-based CERs for hardware components and COTS licenses, and activity-based CERs for associated investments in training and business process reengineering.


Most of the COCOMO® suite models require some sort of sizing of computer code as an input. Ensuring consistency across independent organizations in the rules used to count lines of code is often difficult to achieve. To that end, USC-CSSE highly encourages the use of Unified Code Count for the purposes of sizing your software for historical data collection and reporting purposes. This toolset is a collection of tools designed to automate the collection of source code sizing information. It spans multiple programming languages and utilizes one of two possible Source Lines of Code (SLOC) definitions, physical or logical. The Affiliate's Private Area has more Unified Code Count tools for our Affiliates.


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