A Groupware-Supported Methodology
For Requirements Negotiation
What is EasyWinWin? | Groupware | Events | Publications | Contact | Download
- Tutorial at the IEEE Joint International
Requirements Engineering Conference (Dortmund, Germany)
- Tutorial at the XP2002 conference (May 26, Alghero, Sardinia,
- Read the article "Developing
Groupware for Requirements Negotiation: Lessons Learned"
at IEEE Distributed Systems Online
- Download Sample Chapter of Process Guide
What is EasyWinWin?
EasyWinWin is a requirements definition methodology
that builds on the win-win negotiation approach and leverages collaborative
technology to improve the involvement and interaction of key stakeholders.
With EasyWinWin, stakeholders move through a step-by-step win-win
negotiation where they collect, elaborate, and prioritize their
requirements, and surface and resolve issues to come up with mutually
Motivation. The success or failure of a new system
rests squarely on the always shifting, sometimes frustrating task
of requirements definition. Many of the failures, delays, and budget
overruns in software engineering can be traced directly to shortfalls
in the requirements process. There is no complete set of requirements
out there just waiting to be discovered. Different stakeholders
– users, customers, managers, domain experts, and developers
– come to a project with different expectations and interests.
Developers learn more about the customer’s and user’s
world, while customers and users learn more about what is technically
possible and feasible. Requirements must be negotiated among the
success-critical stakeholders who are often unsure of their own
needs, much less the needs of others. Requirements negotiation is
based on stakeholder co-operation and active involvement in decision-making
to achieve mutually satisfactory agreements.
The WinWin negotiation model. The particular WinWin
system we have evolved is based on a negotiation model for converging
to a WinWin agreement, and a WinWin equilibrium condition to test
whether the negotiation process has converged. The negotiation model
guides success-critical stakeholders in elaborating mutually satisfactory
agreements: Stakeholders express their goals as win conditions.
If everyone concurs, the win conditions become agreements. When
stakeholders do not concur, they identify their conflicted win conditions
and register their conflicts as issues. In this case, stakeholders
invent options for mutual gain and explore the option trade-offs.
Options are iterated and turned into agreements when all stakeholders
concur. A domain taxonomy is used to organize WinWin artifacts.
Important terms of the domain are captured in a glossary.
EasyWinWin methodology. EasyWinWin defines a set
of activities guiding stakeholders through a process of gathering,
elaborating, prioritizing, and negotiating requirements. EasyWinWin
uses group facilitation techniques that are supported by collaborative
tools (electronic brainstorming, categorizing, polling, etc.). The
activities are as follows (follow the hyperlinks for more details):
and expand negotiation topics: Stakeholders jointly refine
and customize the outline of negotiation topics based on a domain
taxonomy of software requirements. The shared outline helps
to stimulate thinking, to organize negotiation results, and
serves as a completeness checklist during negotiations.
stakeholder interests: Stakeholders share their goals, perspectives,
views, and expectations by gathering statements about their
- Converge on Win
Conditions: The team jointly craft a non-redundant list
of clearly stated, unambiguous win conditions by considering
all ideas contributed in the brainstorming session.
- Capture a glossary
of Terms: Stakeholders define and share the meaning of important
keywords of the project/domain in a glossary.
Win Conditions: The team prioritizes the win conditions
to define and narrow down the scope of work and to gain focus.
- Reveal Issues and
Constraints: Stakeholders surface and understand issues
by analyzing the prioritization poll.
Issues, Options: Stakeholders register constraints and conflicting
win conditions as Issues and propose Options to resolve these
Agreements: The captured decision rationale provides the
foundation to negotiate agreements.
EasyWinWin is a requirements definition approach
that is based on a Group Support System (GSS) by GroupSystems.com
to enable the involvement and interaction of key stakeholders. A
GSS is a suite of software tools that can be used to create, sustain,
and change patterns of group interaction in repeatable, predictable
ways. Each GSS tool can be used to create specific group dynamics.
For example, an electronic brainstorming tool might be used to cause
a group to diverge from comfortable patterns of thought, seeking
farther and farther afield for new ideas. A categorizing tool, on
the other hand, might be used to cause a group to converge quickly
on just the key issues that are worthy of further attention. A group
outlining tool might let a group organize complex ideas into an
understandable structure, while an electronic polling tool could
be used to provoke discussions that uncover unchallenged assumptions
and reveal unshared information. Because a GSS can be used to create
repeatable patterns of group interaction, it can be used to create
collaborative methodologies that produce deliverables of consistent
quality and detail.
a sample chapter of the EasyWinWin Process Guidebook!
Upcoming EasyWinWin Events
Past EasyWinWin Events
- Tutorial @ XP2002 (the 3rd Int. Conference on eXtreme Programming
and Agile Processes in Software Engineering, May 26, 2002, Alghero,
- Tutorial at the IEEE Joint International Requirements Engineering
Conference (September 9-13, 2002, Dortmund, Germany)
- September 10 2001, EasyWinWin Tutorial @ ESEC/FSE conference
- May 28 2001, Presentation at Polytechnical University Hagenberg,
- May 14 2001, ICSE 2001: "EasyWinWin: A Groupware-Supported
Methodology For Requirements Negotiation", Toronto, Canada
- April 5 2001, "Using WinWin for Requirements Negotiation",
British Computer Society, RESG, Imperial College, London
- EasyWinWin Tutorial: Southern California Software Process Improvement
- EasyWinWin Tutorial: Los Angeles Software Process Improvement
- June 2000: EasyWinWin Webinar
- July 2000: EasyWinWin hands-on seminar at USC-CSE
For further information or in case you are interested in organizing
an EasyWinWin negotiation within your organization please contact:
Johannes Kepler University Linz
Systems Engineering and Automation
Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria
|Barry W. Boehm
University of Southern California
Center for Software Engineering941 W. 37th Place, SAL Room
328Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781Email: email@example.com
|Robert O. Briggs
GroupSystems.com1430 E. Fort Lowell Rd. #301, Tucson, AZEmail:
Hasan Kitapci, Barry Boehm, Using a Hybrid Method for Formalizing Informal Stakeholder Decisions, 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS'07), 2007, p. 283
Hasan Kitapci, Formalizing Informal Stakeholder Inputs Using Gap-Bridging Methods, PhD Dissertation, Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, December 2007
Barry Boehm, Paul Grunbacher, Robert O. Briggs, EasyWinWin: A Groupware-Supported Methodology for Requirement Negotiation, 8th European Software Engineering Conference (ESEC), 9th ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on The Foundations of Software Engineering (FSE-9), September 2001, pp. 320-321
Briggs B., Grünbacher P., EasyWinWin:
Managing Complexity in Requirements Negotiation with GSS, Proceedings
Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer
Boehm B., Grünbacher P., Briggs B., Developing
Groupware for Requirements Negotiation: Lessons Learned, IEEE
Software, May/June 2001, pp. 46-55
Grünbacher P., Briggs B., Surfacing
Tacit Knowledge in Requirements Negotiation: Experiences using EasyWinWin,
Proceedings Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,
IEEE Computer Society, 2001.
Stallinger F., Grünbacher P., System
Dynamics Modelling and Simulation of Collaborative Requirements
Engineering, Journal of Systems and Software 59, 3 (Dec. 2001),
Boehm B., Grünbacher P., Supporting Collaborative Requirements
Negotiation: The EasyWinWin Approach, In: Landauer C., Bellman K.L.
(eds.), Proceedings International Conference on Virtual Worlds and
Simulation, San Diego, January 23-27, 2000.
Grünbacher P., EasyWinWin OnLine: Moderator's Guidebook, A
Methodology for Negotiating Software Requirements. USC-CSE, JKU
Linz, GroupSystems.com, 2000, 2001.
Grünbacher P., Collaborative Requirements Negotiation with
EasyWinWin, 2nd International Workshop on the Requirements Engineering
Process, Greenwich, London, IEEE Computer Society, 2000. ISBN 0-7695-0680-1
Grünbacher P, Integrating Groupware and CASE Capabilities
For Improved Stakeholder Involvement in Collaborative Requirements
Engineering, Proceedings Euromicro 2000 Conference, pp. 232-239,
IEEE Computer Society. ISBN 0-7695-0780-8
Grünbacher P., Egyed A., Medvidovic N., Dimensions of Concerns
in Requirements Negotiation and Architecture Modeling, In: Tarr
P., Harrison W., Finkelstein A., Nuseibeh B., Perry D., Multi-Dimensional
Separation of Concerns, Workshop at ICSE 2000, Ireland.
Paul Grünbacher was supported by the Austrian
Science Fund (Erwin Schrödinger Grant 1999/J 1764 "Collaborative
Requirements Negotiation Aids)